There are many components to a successful web testing strategy, but one of the most often overlooked is the importance of visual UI testing in addition to functional testing.
Most teams will focus on one over the other, but to truly catch as many bugs as possible, you’ll need to incorporate both. First, you need to understand what the difference is and why they’re both needed.
Let’s start by going over what functional testing actually is. Functional testing examines how the software actually works in relation to the given requirements. For example, a homepage on an e-commerce web application might have a menu button; if clicked, it’s expected to drop down with different options.
Functional testing is executed on tests of all sizes from unit tests to end-to-end cases, and it’s critical for making sure that user flows are working as intended and consistent with the product manager’s vision.
So for the same example with the menu button, you may also check to make sure that clicking one of the options on the drop-down will take you the correct page. You can continue to perform a functional test case that includes adding an item to your cart and checking out to ensure each of those actions work one after another and allow the user to successfully make a purchase.
To dive a little deeper, functional tests are basically actions and validations -- the tester or tool performs an action with an expected validation, which either works or doesn’t work.
Most of the time, when we talk about functional testing, we’re referring to automated testing where we’re getting a pass or fail test result. When thinking about cross-browser and device testing, functional testing should be included after deciding which browsers and devices to test in order to make sure those tests pass across different configurations.
If you’re in development, design, or QA, this information probably isn’t news to you. However, differentiating between functional and visual testing, and understanding when each is needed, will inform a more intelligent testing strategy.
While it’s clearly important to test the functional elements of your application, some teams will make the mistake of doing the bulk of their testing to check functional efficiency with little or no regard for visual validation.
Visual testing requires the tester to consider how the application looks in addition to how it works. Often times, the UI of an application can pass a functional test, while design elements that are visually defective can go under the radar.
This becomes extremely important as we look at responsive design and consider the myriad of different devices, browsers, and operating systems. If an application is not built to be responsive, design elements may suffer on different screen sizes, compromising the user experience. This can go unnoticed if just functional testing is performed.
Visual bugs can be annoying or unpleasant to users, but they can go beyond inconvenience to be more severe. In fact, visual inconsistencies can affect the user journey in a way that makes it difficult or even impossible to complete their intended actions even though the test is functionally proficient.
You can see the spectrum of severity when it comes to visual bugs in the following images from the Baymard Institute. In the screenshot of Amazon’s website, the text overlay has not rendered properly and is hard to read. In the example with the form field, visual issues make it difficult to fill out.
[caption id="attachment_2984" align="aligncenter" width="750"] Photo via Baymard Institute[/caption]
[caption id="attachment_2985" align="aligncenter" width="550"] Photo via Baymard Institute[/caption]
The issue may be that teams don’t have the time or capacity to do visual testing, or that they don’t prioritize it, but there are many organizations that are simply unaware that it should be an integral part of their strategy.
Automating Functional and Visual UI Testing
As mentioned, functional UI testing is most often done with a test automation tool, such as Selenium or Record & Replay, that will run your test in multiple browsers and give you a pass or fail result to tell you whether the application is working as intended.
However, this doesn’t mean you have to do visual testing all by hand and manually compare your website in different browsers. So how do you speed up visual testing?
A tool like CrossBrowserTesting can be used for visual UI testing to take automated screenshots across configurations. With the screenshot engine, you can compare a page on different browsers and devices side-by-side with your baseline configuration and evaluate highlighted layout differences that let you know where there may be bugs.
Since your team will probably be adding new features and changing the UI from time to time, you can also look at historical versions of your application for regression testing with an integration like Applitools Eyes.
Additionally, to ensure that your web application is put through regular functional and visual testing, you can also schedule tests in a multitude of ways -- through Jenkins with Selenium, or with scheduling for Record & Replay or automated screenshots.
By implementing automation practices and incorporating visual testing into your existing strategy, your team can achieve more testing coverage without wasting any time. And your release cycles won't be a guessing game.
- Make sure your application works correctly and looks great
- Visual bugs can be a mild inconvenience, or they could prevent your users from completing a crucial task
- Ensure a positive overall user experience by testing across different browsers and devices
- Leverage tools to automate both functional and visual testing for faster feedback